When We Met Other Human Species

  • Published on: 09 July 2019
  • We all belong to the only group of hominins on the planet today. But we weren’t always alone. 100,000 years ago, Eurasia was home to other hominin species, some of which we know our ancestors met, and spent some quality time with.

    Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Fabrizio de Rossi from Studio 252mya for their wonderful hominin illustrations. You can find more of their work here: https://252mya.com/

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

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    References: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1h8iVAIugVPfxOcCZKeZxtZfa6mNP8V7xMhS_vxmDRl0/edit?usp=sharing
  • Runtime : 13:29
  • dinosaurs dinos paleo paleontology scishow eons pbs pbs digital studios hank green john green complexly fossils natural history Neanderthals Denisovans Eurasia DNA. East Asia Africa Siberia Homo sapiens STAT2 adaptive introgression Denisova Cave mitochondrial DNA Homo erectus Homo neanderthalensis modern humans


  • PBS Eons
    PBS Eons   9 months ago

    Some commenters have pointed out that calling Neanderthals and Denisovans “other hominin species” in this episode breaks the rules of the biological species concept (BSC), which says if two things can interbreed, then they’re the same species. Some paleoanthropologists would agree. They consider both Neanderthals and Denisovans to be subspecies of Homo sapiens, rather than separate species. Other experts would say that Neanderthals have a set of features that make them clearly distinguishable from Homo sapiens, putting them outside the range of variation we include in our species. And we hardly know the Denisovans - like we said in the video, they don’t even have a scientific name yet.The incredible thing about this is that we can even think about applying the BSC to fossils at all. The BSC is a species concept based on living organisms, and it’s only been within the last two decades or so that we’ve had the ancient DNA and the technology to test hypotheses about interbreeding in extinct groups. And it’s not the only way to define a species, either, so it will likely be a while (if ever) before anthropologists decide whether we’re a different species, subspecies, or population from the Neanderthals and Denisovans.(Darcy Shapiro, PhD, script editor)

  • Enda Dorgan
    Enda Dorgan   11 hours ago

    Isn't there some proof that we also ate them?

  • Gordana Stefanovic
    Gordana Stefanovic   12 hours ago

    Mermaids! It's less likely that they actually exist but that would be cool

  • Eric B.
    Eric B.   1 days ago

    I did 23 & Me, and I am about 0.2 percent Neanderthal, I think?

  • Alana Weaver
    Alana Weaver   1 days ago

    Neanderthals, Denisovans and other subspecies of Homo sapiens freakiness and kinkiness lead to modern humans.

  • Willem
    Willem   1 days ago

    I thought Neanderthals still exist? I mean they were in my games everytime..

  • craycrayhead
    craycrayhead   2 days ago

    neanderthals sound chill af and i would really want to meet them

  • Richard Miller
    Richard Miller   2 days ago

    Better hunting success + better birthrates and survival= no contest

  • n6vah
    n6vah   3 days ago


  • Mike Cotoia
    Mike Cotoia   3 days ago

    I strongly suggest trashing the neo-Darwinism way of analyzing the history of our world. It gives you a really poor understanding on how we arrived and developed.

  • Stilian Georgiev
    Stilian Georgiev   3 days ago

    It feels like this interbreeding thing he talks about is a agenda he pushes on us.

  • masta flava
    masta flava   3 days ago

    you left out the peloponnese (southern Greece ) in white. 4 sites uncovered neanderthal fossils, one of witch is the Apidima Cave, where the oldest modern human fossils outside of Africa (210.000 years old) where discovered alongside neanderthal remains .

  • Mike D
    Mike D   4 days ago

    Okay how complete of a genome of Neaderthals do we have? Enough to put into a human embryo perhaps?

  • yourusualme
    yourusualme   4 days ago

    Is the neanderthal dna the reason why people of european descent have generally larger and longer noses?

  • Antony Duncan
    Antony Duncan   4 days ago

    What I got from all this is that old homo sapiens liked to get around

  • PapiDarko
    PapiDarko   5 days ago

    came for the knowledge stayed for the hilarious comments

  • veeri92
    veeri92   5 days ago

    You ever wonder whether, if these other hominids still lived, we might be going, "Psh, noooo, those aren't hominids, not like us! Here's another classification to shove them into bye"

  • NewsOracle
    NewsOracle   5 days ago

    3:13 european and westasian (middle east and caucasus) not east asian.

  • Anna Rose
    Anna Rose   5 days ago

    What do you guys think of recent research from Stanford that alleges that tropical diseases from homo sapiens may have played a large role in killing off Neandarthals?

  • T Wal
    T Wal   6 days ago

    Savage, primitive homo sapiens came across completely different sub-species and accepted them. Now we are the modern, technologically advanced and intellectually superior humanity, and we hate ourselves. We don't have to worry much about survival, so technology essentially allows us the luxury of petty hate and selfishness. Something to think about.

  • Calacatchy
    Calacatchy   6 days ago

    So were neanderthals, homo sapiens and denisovans seperate species? If so, how could they freely interbreed? Or were they subspecies, and how can we tell?

  • Phillip McKenzie
    Phillip McKenzie   6 days ago

    From what I understand the "technology" of Neanderthal tools & weapons was considerably more advanced than "Sapiens". It has also been established they made decorative "jewelry" from bone, colorful rocks & seeds of plants. There has been suggestions that the DNA differences made them vulnerable to viruses. Possibly introduced by "Sapien" migration.

  • Sir Wattson
    Sir Wattson   1 weeks ago

    cuurently on LSD, i leanred more on our past in this video, than i did in real life

  • Fista'Gon Jinn
    Fista'Gon Jinn   1 weeks ago

    Of course there is no evidence of violence between the groups because religion hadn't been invented yet. 🤘

  • Ahmed Saad
    Ahmed Saad   1 weeks ago

    What if a bird is watching this video? Still the same species? I am not saying I am a bird though. Definitely not.

  • Travy Elliott
    Travy Elliott   1 weeks ago

    Extremely disappointed to see the skin color in the “humans” is not very dark skin. Any “humans” that would have encountered other hominid would be black like Wesley Snipes. Not even PBS can get this right. Embarrassing as a black man.

  • viralshield
    viralshield   1 weeks ago

    If they homo sapiens mixed with neanderthals then they were the same species. Different species can't reproduce ...

  • Daniel Bickford
    Daniel Bickford   1 weeks ago

    So I've heard that everyone above sub-Saharan Africa has somewhere between two to 5% of their genome is made up of Neanderthal genes. How much of the Neanderthal genome exist in modern humans?

  • you2tooyou2too
    you2tooyou2too   1 weeks ago

    It seems obvious to me that the concept of speciation (like race) becomes specious if you try to apply it rigorously. It is a gradual process, and not a cataclysm. Almost anytime someone says, "There is a thin line between X and Y", they are simply wrong, and the truth is that there is only a very gradual difference between them. Trying to draw a conclusive line when there isn't one is simply an error in judgement, and will probably lead not to insight but to confusion, or worse, folly.

  • Patrick Yackso
    Patrick Yackso   1 weeks ago

    I realy enjoy y'alls videos thank you and keep them coming

  • G Kagara
    G Kagara   1 weeks ago

    I did meet another human species that now my husband, I don't think he belong to same species as I.