When We Met Other Human Species

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  • Published on: 09 July 2019
  • We all belong to the only group of hominins on the planet today. But we weren’t always alone. 100,000 years ago, Eurasia was home to other hominin species, some of which we know our ancestors met, and spent some quality time with.

    Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Fabrizio de Rossi from Studio 252mya for their wonderful hominin illustrations. You can find more of their work here: https://252mya.com/

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

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    References: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1h8iVAIugVPfxOcCZKeZxtZfa6mNP8V7xMhS_vxmDRl0/edit?usp=sharing
  • Runtime : 13:29
  • dinosaurs dinos paleo paleontology scishow eons pbs pbs digital studios hank green john green complexly fossils natural history Neanderthals Denisovans Eurasia DNA. East Asia Africa Siberia Homo sapiens STAT2 adaptive introgression Denisova Cave mitochondrial DNA Homo erectus Homo neanderthalensis modern humans

COMMENTS: 40

  • PBS Eons
    PBS Eons   1 months ago

    Some commenters have pointed out that calling Neanderthals and Denisovans “other hominin species” in this episode breaks the rules of the biological species concept (BSC), which says if two things can interbreed, then they’re the same species. Some paleoanthropologists would agree. They consider both Neanderthals and Denisovans to be subspecies of Homo sapiens, rather than separate species. Other experts would say that Neanderthals have a set of features that make them clearly distinguishable from Homo sapiens, putting them outside the range of variation we include in our species. And we hardly know the Denisovans - like we said in the video, they don’t even have a scientific name yet.The incredible thing about this is that we can even think about applying the BSC to fossils at all. The BSC is a species concept based on living organisms, and it’s only been within the last two decades or so that we’ve had the ancient DNA and the technology to test hypotheses about interbreeding in extinct groups. And it’s not the only way to define a species, either, so it will likely be a while (if ever) before anthropologists decide whether we’re a different species, subspecies, or population from the Neanderthals and Denisovans.(Darcy Shapiro, PhD, script editor)

  • Al Pal
    Al Pal   4 hours ago

    Australian Aborigines have been living in Australia for over 65,000 years. They have 2% Denisovans DNA

  • immanuel williams
    immanuel williams   5 hours ago

    I love the speculating about what happened to the other hominid species... We killed their men and mated with their women, just like we did every other group of humans we encountered. And or put them to work. Ppl think the world was always like it is today- suburbs and the violence conveniently exported where youre not.

  • Uncle Jun
    Uncle Jun   13 hours ago

    The virgin neanderthal vs the CHAD Human.

  • Christine Still
    Christine Still   1 days ago

    About the Denisovans, I keep hearing you say HOMININS” but the word is HominiDS, right?

  • J R
    J R   1 days ago

    Booorrrring

  • Stunner 900
    Stunner 900   1 days ago

    They intermarried with the Neanderthals

  • acrisox
    acrisox   1 days ago

    the background music somehow reminded me of the chernobyl series and somehow that made the whole video way more eerie than its intended XD

  • Tyrander165
    Tyrander165   1 days ago

    Humans love to do two things; kill each other and have sex with anything that doesn't make our junk fall off. Saying that there is no evidence we killed neanderthals doesn't mean it didn't happen...a lot.

  • Michael Crider
    Michael Crider   1 days ago

    It’s also important to remember, one of our more modern genes. Gene Simmons which is obviously where our connection to lizards come from. The tongue is the best clue.

  • Greg Versace
    Greg Versace   1 days ago

    Homo Floresiensis will be an interesting addition to these studies.And at 3 feet tall, they might be a factor in East Asians being shorter.

  • Chris Ward
    Chris Ward   1 days ago

    I'd like to think that the first coupling between a Neanderthal and modern humans was romantic and loving, but I somehow doubt it based on how tolerant we areof differences these days....

  • aohige
    aohige   1 days ago

    I know it's semantics but I never, ever liked the narrative of "why are we the only ones left" because it is inaccurate. It's obvious that many of these much lesser numerous cousins simply got absorbed into our gene pool. We're not the "only ones left", we're the result of the family tree converging into a single line.

  • Shane Hesse
    Shane Hesse   2 days ago

    I'm sorry, but if copulation results in viable offspring, then isn't that the definition of being members of the same species?

  • Ed L
    Ed L   2 days ago

    This is hateful pseudoscience! We all bleed red! We are all hominins!

  • Rabbit TeaPot
    Rabbit TeaPot   2 days ago

    How do we know we are the “only branch on this tree”? What about the tribes that we do not disturb or do not know about in the jungles?

  • thot creations
    thot creations   2 days ago

    It could just be a "southern satisfaction" that swung the mating numbers... But hey comedy and science only mix well in a certain mental envionment

  • I am Yours
    I am Yours   3 days ago

    Its same as Horse and Donkey Makes a Mule. So maybe we are subspecies of Denisovans and hence we have those genes. So Neanderthal + Denisovan = Homo Sapiens I believe.

  • Kan Rup
    Kan Rup   3 days ago

    0:25 well, what is it?

  • KoroWheke
    KoroWheke   3 days ago

    I’m gonna keeping pronouncing it as Denisovans

  • Ryan Derby
    Ryan Derby   3 days ago

    When you say Neanderthals are different species, how are you defining the word "species"? I am asking because you are also saying they interbred with some of our ancestors. Wouldn't this mean they were actually the same species? "According to the biological species concept, organisms belong to the same species if they can interbreed to produce viable, fertile offspring." - Khan Academy

  • Big D Killa
    Big D Killa   3 days ago

    would be coolz if they could clone an specie.

  • Big D Killa
    Big D Killa   3 days ago

    Neanderthals are from the Netherlands. It was called Neanderlands in old Dutch.

  • A Hansen
    A Hansen   4 days ago

    Yes we do have genetic markers for several lower ordered hominids. Most recent is & prevalent is homo neanderthalensis in enroute to homosapiens sapiens, however if you look at genetic evolution our DNA has evolved aprox. 7% in the past 5000yrs which on our evolutionary time line that puts us at aprox. 250,000yrs+one the opposite side currently most people think there is just 1 kind of homo sapien sapiens, but in fact through mutation there are actually several kinds of human due to speciation, geographical climate, rapid migration, diet, injuries, different combinations of ancestral breeding & the combined events within their lives, skills learned & stored from ages past & accessed with your own DNA, athleticism, intelligence, IQ & EQ, social interaction or lack thereof etc.Right now there is current speciation & evolution of homosapiens sapiens into several branches & sub-branches. You may already be in one of these branches & not know it. Leading to The ascendancy of homosapiens superior & eventually homosuperior.

  • heathenwizard
    heathenwizard   4 days ago

    I wonder how many Denisovan remains are sitting in Museum collections because they’ve been misidentified as neanderthalensis or erectus fossils. Because the holotype material for Denisovans doesn’t exist, it could be that we have more material than we realize if Denisovans were morphologically similar to Neanderthals.

  • Veronica Logotheti
    Veronica Logotheti   4 days ago

    Not all have these genesThey gave us also lots of sickness like dementia parkinson autism etc

  • Meranda Dudenbostel
    Meranda Dudenbostel   4 days ago

    Yeah well now scientists are thinking about bring back the Neanderthals. 🤔They have the DNA, but they're still debating whether or not to bring them back... 🤨🙁because for starters they need a human female of today to give birth to one. By planting the embryos into her. Science stuff.🤷‍♀️

  • Poindexter Queue
    Poindexter Queue   4 days ago

    Every genus within family Canidae contains species that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Also, there are at least two liligers (offspring of a lion and a liger, which is itself the offspring of a lion and a tiger). We have to face the fact that the taxonomy, and the idea of "species" itself is a broken concept, based on the paleotontological record, and not on the genetic record, which contains gradual continuity, and no isolated categories. There are occasional population-level shifts -- periodic equilibria -- but there is still continuity there.

  • Ralph Livingston
    Ralph Livingston   4 days ago

    I’m usually not terribly misinformed… But I thought Neanderthals tended to be tall? Did anyone else believe that? (Great stuff by the way!)

  • Nonaligned Videos
    Nonaligned Videos   4 days ago

    If Neanderthals habitually shunned offspring born of Homo sapiens and Neanderthals and Homo sapiens were mostly okay with it then this might explain how the mixing of the two groups only seems to have benefited Hom sapiens?

  • Eric Pitty
    Eric Pitty   4 days ago

    Love Hank Green so much. Truly a great presenter, and probably one of the next great public educational personalities of this generation.

  • Louis Parry-Mills
    Louis Parry-Mills   5 days ago

    Genetically, the peoples of Madagascar are Austronesian, not African. At 3:27 Madagascar should be in the left picture, not the right.

  • Mike
    Mike   5 days ago

    Wow what kinda freaky lay that would be, banging some other hominid babes. 😍😍😍😍😍😍

  • Bullminator
    Bullminator   5 days ago

    So when we will start breeding spacenoids.

  • Sultán DZ
    Sultán DZ   5 days ago

    So triple H from WWE have 100% Neanderthal gen

  • Mobile NPC
    Mobile NPC   6 days ago

    Anyone else bothered by "NeanderTALL"? I've never heard it said without the 'th' sound until this video.