When We Met Other Human Species

  • Published on: 09 July 2019
  • We all belong to the only group of hominins on the planet today. But we weren’t always alone. 100,000 years ago, Eurasia was home to other hominin species, some of which we know our ancestors met, and spent some quality time with.

    Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Fabrizio de Rossi from Studio 252mya for their wonderful hominin illustrations. You can find more of their work here: https://252mya.com/

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

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    References: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1h8iVAIugVPfxOcCZKeZxtZfa6mNP8V7xMhS_vxmDRl0/edit?usp=sharing
  • Runtime : 13:29
  • dinosaurs dinos paleo paleontology scishow eons pbs pbs digital studios hank green john green complexly fossils natural history Neanderthals Denisovans Eurasia DNA. East Asia Africa Siberia Homo sapiens STAT2 adaptive introgression Denisova Cave mitochondrial DNA Homo erectus Homo neanderthalensis modern humans


  • first Impression
    first Impression   2 hours ago

    If they mate then they are from the same species, that is one way to define what a species is...

  • Dingus - Games, vlogs, and more?

    Awesome video! Also, I've heard of another hypothesis about why the neanderthals were not as successful was due to lacking vocal abilities. While they could speak, they were nowhere near the capabilities of Homo Sapiens and this would have affected their ability to resolve group conflict, hunt, and fight/defend together. Over thousands of years that could chip away at a population. Not saying this is the SOLE reason, their demise was indisputably caused by many issues, just my two cents!

  • Stonersloth Hughes
    Stonersloth Hughes   5 hours ago

    It's probably most likely all the things you listed are the reasons the neanderthals. They were on their way out because of the ice age, and whenever homo sapiens migrated north they out commpeated them in many areas, they then started inter breeding and because of their low numbers they were interbred into the homosapiens gen pools. The remaining were probably out compeated whenever dogs were domesicated and homo sapiens sphear technology.

  • attovishnu
    attovishnu   9 hours ago

    It's very reassuring to know that homo sapiens bred with neanderthals, now we know that the hybrid is Sasquatch. The tradeoff? We got dwarfism, sasquatch got giantism.

  • Chizachuku
    Chizachuku   10 hours ago

    Imagine a prehistoric proto-world war, sapiens vs all. That'd be a sick background for a new TV series if there's anyone out there who's interested cough Netflix cough hbo come on

  • Charlie Clumsy
    Charlie Clumsy   11 hours ago

    Does that mean that Africans can't handle cold as well as EuroAsian people?

  • Charlie Clumsy
    Charlie Clumsy   11 hours ago

    I love the Internet. I love having the possibility to learn information like this very easily.

  • Afrika Smith
    Afrika Smith   11 hours ago

    Next thing you know will discover that humans used to be as diverse as Middle Earth.

  • Jim Battersbee
    Jim Battersbee   15 hours ago

    The most recent evolutionary split among hominids is to be found in the USA. an odd collection of humans that deny scientific facts in favor of "alternative facts". Truly bizarre.

  • goatneck
    goatneck   20 hours ago

    Wait, if they were a different species how did they were able to reproduce with homo sapiens?

  • Some Dragon to Slay
    Some Dragon to Slay   21 hours ago

    Could someone explain me why they were a different species if they could interbreed with us? Isn't that against the definition of species?

  • Charlotte Gill
    Charlotte Gill   22 hours ago

    23andme tells me that I have 311 variants of Neanderthal DNA which is 93% more than average person 😊

  • 33kaus holokaust
    33kaus holokaust   22 hours ago

    If today the neanderthal lived, the homo sapiens would have used them as slaves .We as humans cant even tolerate other races of our same species. Imagine if the species were different We are less evolved than our ancestors. We are more divided than our ancestors were. Our ancestors survived because they learned to coexist. We will die cos we forgot to co exist

  • Raymond Palmer
    Raymond Palmer   1 days ago

    Solar system is only 24000 years old. Humans aren't even indigenous to eArth!

  • John Kotab
    John Kotab   1 days ago

    A note on "Species"Species differentiation as a scientific truth is quite grey now, with all that we've learned even in the last decade. We have found hundreds of examples of species that can interbreed and create fertile offspring once geographical (ie, different side of the mountain range or ocean) or temporal (ie, different flowering times, times of mammal's heat/fertility cycle) barriers are overcome, which is quite easy to do in laboratory settings. Climate change has broken down some these natural barriers to reproduction cross-species, so that it happens in the wild. Temperate-climate bears like the Grizzly and tundra-climate bears like the Polar now have overlapping population distributions, and have interbred. Its possible that some of these more-subtle (ie, noticeable over millions of years, not over decades like in modern history) changes in climate resulted in our interbreeding with Neanderthals.

  • Tom Hansen
    Tom Hansen   1 days ago

    The other interesting thought is the FOXP2 gene in Neanderthals, which affects linguistic abilities. While this is a hypothesis, I have a feeling that they may have had an influence on our languages. We'll never know for certain, though.

  • mick hanks
    mick hanks   1 days ago

    isn't the concept of a "Tree" as analogy becoming a poor metaphor to represent life?

  • Its2AM
    Its2AM   1 days ago

    Are you saying there are genetic differences between the races? I thought race was a social construct

  • Nate Taite
    Nate Taite   1 days ago

    Can we all just agree humans didn't out compete them to their demise. They were killed off by a catastrophe. Probably a astroid raised tsunamis and killed a lot of them off. Especially when you think about how benefitial it is to live by the water.

  • The Brocialist
    The Brocialist   1 days ago

    In every social group, there has to be that one crazy bastard who’ll stick his schlong into anything with a pulse. You can thank him or her the next time you don’t die from a paper cut

  • Donnie Pinns
    Donnie Pinns   1 days ago

    Well, we may say we f***ed 'em to death lol

  • E. MAR
    E. MAR   1 days ago

    What a waste of time!

  • Lumosnight
    Lumosnight   1 days ago

    Interesting how a lot of these Neanderthal remains were found in the Balkans... you should do a video on the ancient Vinčan culture, located in modern day Serbia. These were some of the first European settlers.

  • Blue
    Blue   1 days ago

    sima de los W I S O S

    VIVEK CHOUDHURY   1 days ago

    The concluding lines "They live on in our genes, reminding us of a time when we weren't alone", kinda makes me sad for the Neanderthals ...

  • Wayne Mercer
    Wayne Mercer   1 days ago

    I wonder how the presenter would surive in those times... Lol what have we become.. homopuneyous

  • Joseph Summer
    Joseph Summer   1 days ago

    By definition, if we interbred, then produced viable offspring, then we're the same species.

  • Greasyspleen
    Greasyspleen   1 days ago

    Did these interbreeding events shortly follow the invention of alcoholic beverages?

  • Israel Vazquez
    Israel Vazquez   1 days ago

    No such thing as other human species. All humans are the same creature with 46 chromosomes.Stop pushing the naturalist fairytale