How the Squid Lost Its Shell

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  • Published on: 17 April 2018
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    The ancestors of modern, squishy cephalopods like the octopus and the squid all had shells. In ancient times, their shell was their greatest asset but it eventually proved to be their biggest weakness.

    Special thanks to Franz Anthony for the beautiful cephalopod reconstructions. You can see more of Franz's tremendous work at http://252mya.com

    And thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: http://spinops.blogspot.com/

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

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    References:
    http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/taxa/inverts/mollusca/mollusca.php
    http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.860.9021&rep=rep1&type=pdf
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bies.201100001/full
    http://www.deepseanews.com/2017/10/how-the-squid-lost-its-shell/
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269526655_An_endocochleate_experiment_in_the_Silurian_straight-shelled_cephalopod_Sphooceras
    https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13358-015-0100-3
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1111/1475-4983.00155/asset/1475-4983.00155.pdf?v=1&t=jedjjjbl&s=df93664ab7ea8768c2832ea135e7dd76626b0ea3
    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0007262
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00828.x/epdf
    https://arstechnica.com/science/2017/11/if-you-liked-the-cambrian-explosion-youll-love-the-ordovician-radiation/
    Squid Empire by Danna Staaf: http://www.cephalopodiatrist.com/p/squid-empire.html
  • Runtime : 8:32
  • dinosaurs dinos paleo paleontology scishow eons pbs pbs digital studios hank green john green complexly fossils natural history cephalopods octopus squid cuttlefish shell gladius molluscs coleoid nautilus septa siphuncle phragmocone Sphooceras Plectronoceras ammonites mantle

COMMENTS: 40

  • redman0324
    redman0324   4 days ago

    Gotta love conjecture touted as fact

  • Khoi’s World
    Khoi’s World   5 days ago

    Are mermaids real and what would it be like if they were would they look different than we think

  • P Jax
    P Jax   5 days ago

    Very interesting episode but Hank it looks like your jacket is trying to blend in with the background!! 😂

  • Sara Bridges
    Sara Bridges   1 weeks ago

    Also squid is the most sustainable seafood you can eat

  • Tyler SIgnorella
    Tyler SIgnorella   1 weeks ago

    Imagine being a prehistoric cephalopod and you just starting floating up with no idea what’s going on.

  • Grudge 101
    Grudge 101   1 weeks ago

    Conner viet thats deep man but tmnt was what u called a shelled argument

  • ryo0ka
    ryo0ka   1 weeks ago

    Why don't you show the remain of shells in the living species

  • Sam Scott
    Sam Scott   2 weeks ago

    Thanks for this, now I'm going to go watch videos of cuttlefish for a while.

  • Ness lopez
    Ness lopez   2 weeks ago

    cute ice cream cones ? xD Cuthullu style perhaps :V , how he cute , dorky and smart i like him hes hot :3

  • John Apiag
    John Apiag   2 weeks ago

    Guys don't believe in science astroids did.t strike the earth and wipe at all dinosaur. They just went instinct because they need food

  • The Manhunter
    The Manhunter   2 weeks ago

    Who else has read 'Other Minds' - a brilliant book.

  • BamBamBoo Yaaj
    BamBamBoo Yaaj   2 weeks ago

    So this is where they get the anime Gargantia on the Verdurous Planet.

  • My Art Page
    My Art Page   2 weeks ago

    It looks like a little gnomeThe gnome of the sea

  • Alex Leon
    Alex Leon   2 weeks ago

    SEPTA? Squids are from Philly?

  • Justin Stewart
    Justin Stewart   2 weeks ago

    When all is said and done, they aren't that different than their ancestors hundreds of millions of years ago. Impressive.

  • Giovanna Roque
    Giovanna Roque   3 weeks ago

    I would be awesome if you make a video about how mammals diverged between placental and marsupials, and how some still lay eggs too

  • Michael McCall
    Michael McCall   3 weeks ago

    Ice cream cone like? More like "Floating Cthulhu Wizards"

  • nopochki
    nopochki   3 weeks ago

    If here was a quiz ... I would fail

  • Daniel McDavid
    Daniel McDavid   4 weeks ago

    Please make a video on the evolution of Lobsters

  • Veggieboy Ultimate
    Veggieboy Ultimate   4 weeks ago

    What does he mean that the coleoids kept their shell in their permanently and Sphooceras broke its shell’s end?

  • Marko Hromin
    Marko Hromin   1 months ago

    You teaching me about the nautilus and its shell.Someone needs to give you a Minecraft lesson Creeper

  • Mena Toda
    Mena Toda   1 months ago

    Squid: I swear I left my hat here, where is it?!

  • Pieter Vermaak
    Pieter Vermaak   1 months ago

    How could you possibly know their behavior in such detail?