When Fish Wore Armor

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  • Published on: 24 July 2018
  • Check out Hot Mess: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsaEBhRsI6tmmz12fkSEYdw

    420 million years ago, some fish were more medieval. They wore armor, sometimes made of big plates, and sometimes made of interlocking scales. But that armor may actually have served a totally different purpose, one that many animals still use today.

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    References:
    Sim, Min Sub, Shuhei Ono, and Matthew T. Hurtgen. "Sulfur isotope evidence for low and fluctuating sulfate levels in the Late Devonian ocean and the potential link with the mass extinction event." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 419 (2015): 52-62.
    Sallan, Lauren, and Andrew K. Galimberti. "Body-size reduction in vertebrates following the end-Devonian mass extinction." Science 350.6262 (2015): 812-815.
    Afanassieva, O. B. "On the growth and regeneration of the exoskeleton in early jawless vertebrates (Osteostraci, Agnatha)." Doklady Biological Sciences. Vol. 466. No. 1. Pleiades Publishing, 2016.
    Anderson, Philip SL, and Mark W. Westneat. "Feeding mechanics and bite force modelling of the skull of Dunkleosteus terrelli, an ancient apex predator." Biology Letters 3.1 (2007): 77-80. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/3/1/77.short
    Arsenault, Marius, et al. "New data on the soft tissues and external morphology of the antiarch Bothriolepis canadensis (Whiteaves, 1880), from the Upper Devonian of Miguasha, Quebec." Recent Advances in the Origin and Early Radiation of Vertebrates: Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München (2004): 439-454. http://www.pfeil-verlag.de/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/3_52d20.pdf
    Brazeau, Martin D., and Matt Friedman. "The origin and early phylogenetic history of jawed vertebrates." Nature 520.7548 (2015): 490.
    Brett, Carlton E., and Sally E. Walker. "Predators and predation in Paleozoic marine environments." The Paleontological Society Papers 8 (2002): 93-118. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/the-paleontological-society-papers/article/predators-and-predation-in-paleozoic-marine-environments/DFEC6AE2E6493B351AEA2FFE90871469
    Carr, ROBERT K. "Paleoecology of Dunkleosteus terrelli (Placodermi: Arthrodira)." KirtlandIa, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History 57 (2010): 36-55.
    Carr, Robert, K. "Placoderm diversity and evolution." Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle: Sciences de la terre, paléontologie, géologie, minéralogie. Section C 17 (1995): 85. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Robert_Carr2/publication/235924324_Placoderm_diversity_and_evolution/links/00463514388def2cea000000.pdf
    Chevrinais, Marion, Claire Jacquet, and Richard Cloutier. "Early establishment of vertebrate trophic interactions: Food web structure in Middle to Late Devonian fish assemblages with exceptional fossilization." Bulletin of Geosciences 92.4 (2017): 491-510.
    De Vleeschouwer, David, et al. "Timing and pacing of the Late Devonian mass extinction event regulated by eccentricity and obliquity." Nature communications 8.1 (2017): 2268. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-02407-1
    Denison, Robert H. "The soft anatomy of Bothriolepis." Journal of Paleontology (1941): 553-561. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1298812
    Doherty, Alison H., Cameron K. Ghalambor, and Seth W. Donahue. "Evolutionary physiology of bone: bone metabolism in changing environments." Physiology 30.1 (2015): 17-29.
    Donoghue, Philip CJ, and Ivan J. Sansom. "Origin and early evolution of vertebrate skeletonization." Microscopy research and technique 59.5 (2002): 352-372.
    Giles, Sam, Matt Friedman, and Martin D. Brazeau. "Osteichthyan-like cranial conditions in an Early Devonian stem gnathostome." Nature 520.7545 (2015): 82. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature14065

    We've hit YouTube's description character limit so you can find all references we used in this video here: https://pastebin.com/raw/XkhEwmyU
  • Runtime : 10:19
  • dinosaurs dinos paleo paleontology scishow eons pbs pbs digital studios hank green john green complexly fossils natural history Devonian fish Sacabambaspis seas water Arandaspida Heterostracans exoskeleton armor Tolypelepis Osteostracans bony shields Placoderms jaws Bothriolepis Dunkleosteus bone reabsorption Adenosine Triphosphate skeleton ray-finned lobe-finned oceans

COMMENTS: 40

  • Retro True
    Retro True   5 hours ago

    Cant trust anyone who says "fishes"...

  • Archagon
    Archagon   1 weeks ago

    The question is, did the female ones wear a breastplate armor?

  • Mike BCG
    Mike BCG   1 weeks ago

    We did not come from evolution we were made by God look at a fish from then and now we don’t look nothing like it

  • Riko Febri
    Riko Febri   1 weeks ago

    Look like my creature in spore games

  • Clyde Balcom
    Clyde Balcom   2 weeks ago

    I'm wondering if Dunkleosteus was a deep diving fish? The frontal armor could be a type of pressure suit? I don't know. I'm just wondering.

  • William Dunn
    William Dunn   2 weeks ago

    What if ray finned fishes and low finned fishes evolved separately from armored fish?

  • Electrology Now
    Electrology Now   2 weeks ago

    Funny: If you turn off the sound, it looks like you're conducting an orchestra.

  • Hugh Jardon
    Hugh Jardon   2 weeks ago

    The climate change occurred because placoderm factories & manufacturers were creating too much pollution.

  • REW
    REW   3 weeks ago

    Why would there be the evolution of heavy body armor before the evolution of jaws?! That would be like the shield being invented before the sword!!!🤔

  • 21Arrozito
    21Arrozito   3 weeks ago

    Some still do, armoured catfish in the Amazon look a lot like these fish prehistoric fish

  • Michael Loedel
    Michael Loedel   3 weeks ago

    So before the Pleistocene was the last time there was sea ice/glacial period that random Devonian cold snap? Seems like ice is just rare

  • Gschwin Game Jumper
    Gschwin Game Jumper   1 months ago

    scientists: discovers new species turns on caps lockSmashes head on one side of keyboard while pressing a and u keys every now and then

  • TigerwithDiesel
    TigerwithDiesel   1 months ago

    What animal on earth has THE STRONGEST BITE! Verses living and extinct 😊

  • Kaylynn Anson
    Kaylynn Anson   1 months ago

    They said that the placaderms probably died out at the end of the Devonian period, and supposedly they don't have any live descendents. But I can't help but wonder if they are related to sea turtles?

  • Blue Blue
    Blue Blue   1 months ago

    Why didn‘t I never heard of armored fish before? Thank you!

  • Kaashif Ahmed
    Kaashif Ahmed   1 months ago

    Sacabambaspis is a great name for a band.... or as a youtube swear word.....usage:"Man! your political views are a big sacabambaspis!"

  • Bab Manbal
    Bab Manbal   1 months ago

    How is armored titan related to them?

  • Tenmil
    Tenmil   1 months ago

    WOW 😯 this is so amazing 😉 !!! Thank you for sharing this great information !!! 👍👍👍👍👍❤️❤️❤️❤️❤️💋💋💋💋💋😍😍😍😍😍🥰🥰🥰🥰🥰😊😊😊😊😊😃😃😃😃😃

  • Marcia Bowers
    Marcia Bowers   1 months ago

    Thank you... I learn something new everyday...

  • Fae Terran
    Fae Terran   1 months ago

    The comment section of these PBS Eon shorts are almost as infornative as the videos.

  • Nick Malachai
    Nick Malachai   1 months ago

    Nowadays, the only fish that wear armor are the Devonian Festival codplayers.

  • Andre Prawardana
    Andre Prawardana   1 months ago

    The only channel where I willingly choose not to skip any ads.

  • youwatch2muchtv
    youwatch2muchtv   1 months ago

    That one chick that narrates this takes too long to talk. Makes me wanna pull my hair out.

  • Silver Sun
    Silver Sun   1 months ago

    Jellyfish: “... darling it’s better, down where it’s wetter - take it from me!”

  • Cliff H
    Cliff H   1 months ago

    I would like to know more about fossil imprints . I live in West Central ARK. I find Devonian era fossils and lots of trace fossils.

  • Todd Swasey
    Todd Swasey   1 months ago

    How come we see you more than the fish? Dope!