When Fish Wore Armor

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  • Published on: 24 July 2018
  • Check out Hot Mess: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsaEBhRsI6tmmz12fkSEYdw

    420 million years ago, some fish were more medieval. They wore armor, sometimes made of big plates, and sometimes made of interlocking scales. But that armor may actually have served a totally different purpose, one that many animals still use today.

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    References:
    Sim, Min Sub, Shuhei Ono, and Matthew T. Hurtgen. "Sulfur isotope evidence for low and fluctuating sulfate levels in the Late Devonian ocean and the potential link with the mass extinction event." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 419 (2015): 52-62.
    Sallan, Lauren, and Andrew K. Galimberti. "Body-size reduction in vertebrates following the end-Devonian mass extinction." Science 350.6262 (2015): 812-815.
    Afanassieva, O. B. "On the growth and regeneration of the exoskeleton in early jawless vertebrates (Osteostraci, Agnatha)." Doklady Biological Sciences. Vol. 466. No. 1. Pleiades Publishing, 2016.
    Anderson, Philip SL, and Mark W. Westneat. "Feeding mechanics and bite force modelling of the skull of Dunkleosteus terrelli, an ancient apex predator." Biology Letters 3.1 (2007): 77-80. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/3/1/77.short
    Arsenault, Marius, et al. "New data on the soft tissues and external morphology of the antiarch Bothriolepis canadensis (Whiteaves, 1880), from the Upper Devonian of Miguasha, Quebec." Recent Advances in the Origin and Early Radiation of Vertebrates: Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München (2004): 439-454. http://www.pfeil-verlag.de/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/3_52d20.pdf
    Brazeau, Martin D., and Matt Friedman. "The origin and early phylogenetic history of jawed vertebrates." Nature 520.7548 (2015): 490.
    Brett, Carlton E., and Sally E. Walker. "Predators and predation in Paleozoic marine environments." The Paleontological Society Papers 8 (2002): 93-118. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/the-paleontological-society-papers/article/predators-and-predation-in-paleozoic-marine-environments/DFEC6AE2E6493B351AEA2FFE90871469
    Carr, ROBERT K. "Paleoecology of Dunkleosteus terrelli (Placodermi: Arthrodira)." KirtlandIa, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History 57 (2010): 36-55.
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    We've hit YouTube's description character limit so you can find all references we used in this video here: https://pastebin.com/raw/XkhEwmyU
  • Runtime : 10:19
  • dinosaurs dinos paleo paleontology scishow eons pbs pbs digital studios hank green john green complexly fossils natural history Devonian fish Sacabambaspis seas water Arandaspida Heterostracans exoskeleton armor Tolypelepis Osteostracans bony shields Placoderms jaws Bothriolepis Dunkleosteus bone reabsorption Adenosine Triphosphate skeleton ray-finned lobe-finned oceans

COMMENTS: 40

  • Whisper XK
    Whisper XK   4 hours ago

    I kinda wish humans had armor playes on our skin in certain places

  • The Dork Ages
    The Dork Ages   2 days ago

    Mad respect to those who made pre historic fish fillet.

  • 佐藤永顕
    佐藤永顕   1 weeks ago

    5:10~ BTW 7400 Newtons of bite-force means that Dunkleosteus can chomp bricks like tofu.

  • BlaZeIT
    BlaZeIT   1 weeks ago

    doesnt this guy also narrates crash course?

  • Hajger89
    Hajger89   1 weeks ago

    I want to see dinosaurs fight a Dunkleosteus.Take notes Hollywood!

  • Spacecookie
    Spacecookie   3 weeks ago

    Why do Placoderm remains seem to have bony eyes for some reason?

  • EJ Simas
    EJ Simas   3 weeks ago

    "Watermelon with a tail" made me snort

  • NoirKami
    NoirKami   1 months ago

    Damn I hope Pokemon use these fishes as inspiration for sw/sd 2

  • Nyan Ard
    Nyan Ard   1 months ago

    "Some fish were more medieval"*have armorExactly

  • Alejandro Hernández
    Alejandro Hernández   1 months ago

    And to think the last of this armored fishes are still swimming in our oceans to this very day, they have been trought a lot of things that we could only imagine

  • crazycatlady39
    crazycatlady39   2 months ago

    Dunkleosteus vs Megaladon would be interesting.

  • reigN Man
    reigN Man   2 months ago

    The Placoderm reminds me of the Armored Titan from Attack on Titans

  • Alfa _
    Alfa _   2 months ago

    Do they perform crusades to take the coral reefs?

  • C Jam
    C Jam   2 months ago

    I love watching these videos just to see how many DR Who baddies get mentioned

  • Purple Sam
    Purple Sam   2 months ago

    You ever wonder what these fish tasted like?

  • Nimble Fox
    Nimble Fox   2 months ago

    Sacabambaspis is the most Rasta name ever!

  • Katherine Robertson
    Katherine Robertson   2 months ago

    Sacabambaspis... That’s one hell of a name! I mean so many fossils have amazing names but I’m partial to sacabambaspis for some reason.

  • Daniel Lee
    Daniel Lee   2 months ago

    Remember in RPG, if you run up on heavy armor enemies to use ice magic.

  • ROYCE
    ROYCE   3 months ago

    lol just like spore

  • Hotdog Buns
    Hotdog Buns   3 months ago

    Unda the seaWhere i shall beeeUnda the sea unda sea seae sea

  • Landen Van Slyke
    Landen Van Slyke   3 months ago

    I was just wondering. If all of the armoured fish went extinct then does that mean that Sturgeon came after? I thought the Sturgeon was an ancient species.

  • Peppita Chips
    Peppita Chips   3 months ago

    I disagree with this guy and there’s two types of armor fish I can name off the top of my head that still exist one is called plyco and the other one is called I Sea Robin get pownd bish

  • Brandon Ryan
    Brandon Ryan   3 months ago

    Awesome information, the elevator background music doesn't do it for me tho. 😪

  • BrianG
    BrianG   4 months ago

    Extinct animals are much cooler than alive species

  • Retro True
    Retro True   4 months ago

    Cant trust anyone who says "fishes"...

  • Archagon
    Archagon   4 months ago

    The question is, did the female ones wear a breastplate armor?